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Airplane IFR quick-review study sheets | page 10 | visit pilotscafe.com for more cool stuff V1.4 copyright 2011 .com You MAY redistribute and share this report (as long as you make no changes and credit pilotscafe.com as the source) All rights reserved to Amir Fleminger and pilotscafe.com. Disclaimer: While attempts have been made to verify the accuracy of the information in this report, the author does not assume any responsibilities or liabilities for errors contained in it or for misuse of this information. You may only use this report at your own risk. Conditions necessary for the formation of thunderstorms 1. Sufficient water vapor (humidity) 2. An unstable temperature lapse rate 3. An initial uplifting force (such as: front passage, mountains, heating from below, etc.) Thunderstorm hazards - Limited visibility, wind shear, strong updrafts and downdrafts, icing, hailstones, heavy rain, severe turbulence, lightning strikes and tornadoes. Life cycle of a thunderstorm ™ Cumulus stage (3-5 mile height) – lifting action of the air begins. Growth rate may exceed 3000 fpm. ™ Mature stage (5-10 miles height) – begins when precipitation has become to fall from the cloud base. Updraft at this stage may exceed 6000 fpm. Downdrafts may exceed 2500 fpm. All thunderstorm hazards are at their greatest intensity at the mature stage. ™ Dissipating stage (5-7 miles height) – characterized by strong downdrafts and the cell is dying rapidly. Fog – A cloud that begins within 50 ft of the surface. Occurs when the air temperature near the ground reaches its dew point, or when the dew point is raised to the existing temperature by added moisture to the air. ™ Radiation fog – Occurs at calm clear nights when the ground cools rapidly due to the release of ground radiation. ™ Advection fog – warm, moist air moves over a cold surface. Winds are required for advection fog to form. ™ Ice fog – Forms when the temperature is much below freezing and water vapor turns directly into ice crystals. Common in the arctic regions but also occurs in mid-latitudes. ™ Upslope fog – moist, stable air is forced up a terrain slope and cooled down to its dew point by adiabatic cooling. ™ Steam fog – Cold, dry air moves over warm water. Moisture is added to the airmass and steam fog forms. Icing (AC 91-74, AC 00-6A) ™ Structural ice – Two conditions for formation: 1.Visible moisture (clouds, fog, precipitation) 2. Aircraft surface temperature below freezing. o Clear ice– most dangerous type. Heavy, hard and difficult to remove. Forms when water drops freeze slowly as a smooth sheet of solid ice. Usually occurs at temperatures close to the freezing point (-10° to 0° C) by large supercooled drops of water o Rime ice – Opaque, white, rough ice formed by small supercooled water drops freezing quickly. Occurs at lower temperatures then clear ice does. o Mixed ice – Clear and rime ice formed simultaneously. ™ Instrument ice – structural ice forming over aircraft instruments and sensors, such as pitot and static. ™ Induction ice – ice reducing the amount of air for the engine intake. o Intake ice – Blocks the engine intake. o Carburetor ice – May form due to the steep temperature drop in the carburetor venturi. Typical conditions are outside air temperatures of -7° to 21° C and a high relative humidity (above 80%). ™ Frost – Ice crystals caused by sublimation when both the temperature and the dew point are below freezing. Hypoxia – insufficient supply of oxygen to the body cells. ™ Hypoxic hypoxia – insufficient supply of O2 to the body as a whole. As altitude increases, O2 percentage of the atmosphere is constant, but its pressure decreases. The reduced pressure becomes insufficient for the O2 molecules to pass through the respiratory system's membranes. ™ Hypemic hypoxia – Inability of the blood to carry the O2 molecules. It may be a result of insufficient blood (bleeding or blood donation), anemia, or CO poisoning. ™ Histotoxic hypoxia – Inability of the body cells to affectively use the O2 supplied by the blood. This can be caused by use of alcohol or drugs. ™ Stagnant hypoxia - Caused by the blood not flowing to a body tissue. Can be caused by heart problems, excessive acceleration (Gs), shock or a constricted blood vessel. Oxygen requirements (§91.211) Note: O2 requirements below are for operations under part 91. Part 121 and 135 requirements are different. ™ Cabin pressure altitudes 12,500-14,000ft - crew must use supplemental O2 for periods of flight over 30 minutes at these altitudes. ™ Cabin pressure altitudes above 14,000ft – crew must be provided with and use supplemental O2 the entire flight time at these altitudes. ™ Cabin pressure altitudes above 15,000ft – each occupant must be provided with supplemental O2. ™ Pressurized cabins o Above FL250 - an addition of at least 10 minutes of supplemental O2 for each occupant is required. o Above FL350 - one pilot at the controls must wear and use an O2 mask unless two pilots are at the control with quick-donning masks and the aircraft is at or below FL410. o If one pilot leaves the controls above FL350, the other pilot must wear and use his O2 mask regardless if it's a quick donning type. Hyperventilation – A condition which occurs when excessive amount of is eliminated from the body as a result breathing too rapidly. Symptoms may be similar to those of hypoxia. Breathing into a paper bag or talking aloud helps recovery from hyperventilation. Decompression sickness – Inert gasses (mainly nitrogen) are released rapidly from solution in the body tissues and fluids as a result of low barometric pressure. The gasses form bubbles that may harm the body in several ways. The most common result of decompression sickness is joint pain ("the bends") but it can damage other important tissues, including the brain. Decompression sickness is more likely after scuba diving, where the body is subject to higher pressures. Wait at least 12 hours after scuba diving if your flight is up to 8000ft cabin altitude, or 24 hours for higher cabin altitudes.

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