A Good Pilot is Always Learning

Private Pilot Airplane Airmen Certification Standards 6/16

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Page 86 of 96

Appendix 6: Safety of Flight General Safety of flight must be the prime consideration at all times. The evaluator, applicant, and crew must be constantly alert for other traffic. If performing aspects of a given maneuver, such as emergency procedures, would jeopardize safety, the evaluator will ask the applicant to simulate that portion of the maneuver. The evaluator will assess the applicant's use of visual scanning and collision avoidance procedures throughout the entire test. Stall and Spin Awareness During flight training and testing, the applicant and the instructor or evaluator must always recognize and avoid operations that could lead to an inadvertent stall or spin and inadvertent loss of control. Use of Checklists Throughout the practical test, the applicant is evaluated on the use of an appropriate checklist. Assessing proper checklist use depends upon the specific Task. In all cases, the evaluator should determine whether the applicant appropriately divides attention and uses proper visual scanning. In some situations, reading the actual checklist may be impractical or unsafe. In such cases, the evaluator should assess the applicant's performance of published or recommended immediate action "memory" items along with his or her review of the appropriate checklist once conditions permit. In a single-pilot airplane, the applicant should demonstrate the CRM principles described as SRM. Proper use is dependent on the specific Task being evaluated. The situation may be such that the use of the checklist while accomplishing elements of an Objective would be either unsafe or impractical in a single-pilot operation. In this case, a review of the checklist after the elements have been accomplished is appropriate. [back] Use of Distractions Numerous studies indicate that many accidents have occurred when the pilot has been distracted during critical phases of flight. The evaluator should incorporate realistic distractions during the flight portion of the practical test to evaluate the pilot's situational awareness and ability to utilize proper control technique while dividing attention both inside and outside the cockpit. Positive Exchange of Flight Controls There must always be a clear understanding of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to flight, the pilots involved should conduct a briefing that includes reviewing the procedures for exchanging flight controls. The FAA recommends a positive three-step process for exchanging flight controls between pilots: • When one pilot seeks to have the other pilot take control of the aircraft, he or she will say, "You have the flight controls." • The second pilot acknowledges immediately by saying, "I have the flight controls." • The first pilot again says, "You have the flight controls." [back] Aeronautical Decision Making, Risk Management, CRM and SRM Throughout the practical test, the evaluator must assess the applicant's ability to use sound aeronautical decision making procedures in order to identify hazards and mitigate risk. The evaluator must accomplish this requirement by reference to the risk management elements of the given Task(s), and by developing scenarios that incorporate and combine Tasks appropriate to assessing the applicant's risk management in making safe aeronautical decisions. For example, the evaluator may develop a scenario that incorporates weather decisions and performance planning. A-17

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