A Good Pilot is Always Learning

Private Pilot Airplane Airmen Certification Standards 6/16

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Navigation

Page 42 of 96

VI. Navigation Task 34BTask A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning References 14 CFR part 61; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25; Navigation Charts Objective To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with pilotage and dead reckoning. Knowledge The applicant demonstrates understanding of: PA.VI.A.K1 1. 943BPilotage and dead reckoning. PA.VI.A.K2 2. 944BDetermining heading, speed, and course. PA.VI.A.K3 3. 945BEstimating time, speed, and distance. PA.VI.A.K4 4. 946BTrue airspeed and density altitude. PA.VI.A.K5 5. 947BWind correction angle. PA.VI.A.K6 6. 948BCheckpoint selection. PA.VI.A.K7 7. 949BPlanned versus actual flight plan calculations and required corrections. PA.VI.A.K8 8. 950BTopography. PA.VI.A.K9 9. 951BPlotting a course. PA.VI.A.K10 10. 952BMagnetic compass errors. PA.VI.A.K11 11. 953BRoute selection. PA.VI.A.K12 12. 954BAltitude selection. PA.VI.A.K13 13. 955BPower setting selection. Risk Management The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing: PA.VI.A.R1 1. 956BFailure to select an altitude that will maintain the minimally required obstacle clearance. PA.VI.A.R2 2. 957BFailure to identify the correct landmarks or checkpoints. PA.VI.A.R3 3. 958BBracketing strategy. PA.VI.A.R4 4. 959BFailure to select a suitable alternate. PA.VI.A.R5 5. 960BFailure to maintain situational awareness. PA.VI.A.R6 6. 961BTask management. PA.VI.A.R7 7. 962BFuel consumption that is different than planned. PA.VI.A.R8 8. 963BHaving to divert to an alternate airport. PA.VI.A.R9 9. 964BPreflight pilot/operation risk assessment and planning. PA.VI.A.R10 10. 965BActual groundspeed and time en route that are different than planned. Skills The applicant demonstrates the ability to: PA.VI.A.S1 1. 966BPrepare a document or electronic equivalent to be used in flight for comparison with planned fuel consumption and times over waypoints while dead reckoning. PA.VI.A.S2 2. 967BFollow the preplanned course by reference to landmarks. PA.VI.A.S3 3. 968BIdentify landmarks by relating surface features to chart symbols. PA.VI.A.S4 4. 969BNavigate by means of pre-computed headings, groundspeeds, and elapsed time. PA.VI.A.S5 5. 970BDemonstrate use of the magnetic direction indicator in navigation, to include turns to headings. PA.VI.A.S6 6. 971BCorrect for and record the differences between preflight groundspeed, fuel consumption, and heading calculations and those determined en route. PA.VI.A.S7 7. 972BVerify the airplane's position within 3 nautical miles of the flight-planned route. PA.VI.A.S8 8. 973BArrive at the en route checkpoints within 5 minutes of the initial or revised estimated time of arrival and provide a destination estimate. PA.VI.A.S9 9. 974BMaintain the selected altitude, ±200 feet and headings, ±15°. 50

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