A Good Pilot is Always Learning

Human Performance Visual Illusions Awareness

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Page 11 of 14

Human Performance Visual Illusions Awareness Flight Operations Briefing Notes • − − − − − VI.3 VI.4 • • Runway approach and visual aids: Type of approach; Availability and location of DME with respect to runway threshold; Let-down aid restriction, if any, such as glide slope unusable beyond a specific point or below a specific altitude; Type of approach lighting system; and, VASI or PAPI availability. Terrain Awareness When requesting or accepting a visual approach, flight crew should be aware of the surrounding terrain features and man-made obstacles. At night, an unlighted hillside between a lighted area and the runway threshold may prevent the flight crew from correctly perceiving the rising terrain. Flying Techniques Type of approach At night, when an instrument approach is available, prefer this approach to a visual approach to reduce the risk of accident caused by visual illusions: ILS approach, with use of VASI / PAPI (as available) for the visual segment; or, Non-precision approach, supported by a VASI / PAPI (as available). If / when performing a step-down (i.e., dive-and-drive) non-precision approach, do not descend below the MDA(H) before reaching the visual descent / decision point (VDP) - if defined - even if adequate visual references have been acquired before reaching the VDP. To prevent going too early to visual references and descending prematurely below the MDA(H), the PF should maintain reference to instruments until reaching the VDP. This provides further protection against visual illusions in hazard conditions. During a visual or circling approach, if the VASI / PAPI indicates below glide slope level off or climb until the VASI/PAPI shows on-glide-path. Page 12 of 15

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